Types of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS)
Tonic and atonic seizures are the most common types of seizures associated with LGS. Other seizure types may occur.1 As people with LGS continue to age, seizure types may change.2
With tonic seizures, muscles tighten from a few seconds to a minute. Eyes may roll back and pupils may dilate. For a brief time, breathing may stop. The heart rate can increase. Tonic seizures mostly happen during sleep but if experienced while awake, the person may fall. (This is sometimes called a "drop attack.")1,3
An atonic seizure causes a brief loss of muscle tone. This may result in falls that are often referred to as "drop attacks" or "drop seizures." Atonic seizures usually last only a few seconds.1,3
Clonic seizures feature a pattern of jerking movements.4
This kind of seizure can begin with stiffening limbs, which is the tonic phase. It is followed by the clonic phase, where jerking of the limbs can occur.4
Atypical absence seizures include staring spells that last about 5 to 30 seconds. Spells start and stop gradually. They may include breaks in activity and a lack of response.1,3
With myoclonic seizures, muscles jerk suddenly. Usually it happens the same way on both sides of the body.4
Partial seizures start in specific areas of the brain. Sometimes consciousness may be affected.4
- 1. Arzimanoglou A, French J, Blume WT, et al. Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: a consensus approach on diagnosis, assessment, management, and trial methodology. Lancet Neurol. 2009;8:82-93.
- 2. Glauser T. Following catastrophic epilepsy, patients from childhood to adulthood. Epilepsia. 2004;45(suppl 5):23-26.
- 3. Crumrine PK. Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. J Child Neurol. 2002;17(suppl 1):S70-S75.
- 4. Benbadis SR. Epileptic seizures and syndromes. Neurol Clin. 2001;19(2):251-270.
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