What is a seizure?

A seizure is a sudden, abnormal episode of electrical activity in the brain. It can cause uncontrolled movement or behavior.

Remember, as people with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) grow older, seizure types may change over time.

What is epilepsy?

Epilepsy is a condition in which seizures occur repeatedly. There is no cure for epilepsy, but medicines may be used to help control it. Often, the cause of epilepsy is unknown.

What is refractory epilepsy?

Refractory epilepsy refers to uncontrolled seizures, despite taking medicine to treat them. You may also hear this called “uncontrolled,” “intractable,” or “drug-resistant” epilepsy.

What is LGS?

LGS is a rare and severe form of epilepsy that usually develops between the ages of 1 and 7. However, the diagnosis can be missed and people can be diagnosed with LGS as an adult.

Seizure types associated with LGS

Having multiple seizure types is a characteristic feature of LGS. Find out more about each of the following seizure types.


Tonic seizures cause muscles to tighten for a few seconds, up to a minute. Eyes may roll back and pupils might dilate. Breathing may stop briefly and the heart rate can increase. Tonic seizures mostly happen during sleep but if experienced while awake, the person may fall. Tonic (along with atonic) seizures are the most common seizures associated with LGS.


Atonic seizures may cause a person’s head or body to go limp. These might result in falls that are often called "drop attacks" or "drop seizures."


Clonic seizures cause a pattern of jerking movements. These seizure types usually happen with other seizure types. Clonic seizures are not frequent in people with LGS.


Tonic-clonic seizures can begin with stiffening limbs, which is the tonic phase. Then the limbs may jerk, which is the clonic phase.

Atypical absence

Atypical absence seizures include staring spells that last about 5 to 30 seconds. Spells start and stop gradually. They may include breaks in activity and a lack of response. Eye blinking and a brief lack of awareness may also occur.


Myoclonic seizures cause muscles to jerk suddenly. They usually happen the same way on both sides of the body.


Partial seizures, also called focal seizures, start in specific areas in one side of the brain. Sometimes, consciousness may be affected.

Keep track of your loved one’s seizure control

and share it with your doctor using the seizure diary.


Talk to your doctor about LGS

and if BANZEL is right for your loved one.