Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome (LGS)

What is Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS)?

Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is a rare and severe form of epilepsy that usually develops before age 7.1 Just 1% to 4% of all childhood epilepsy cases are LGS.1 LGS is found more often in boys than in girls.1

What is epilepsy? Epilepsy is a condition in which seizures frequently occur. There is no cure for epilepsy, but medicines may help control it. Often the cause of epilepsy is unknown.2

What is a seizure? A seizure is a sudden, abnormal episode of electrical activity in the brain.3 It can cause uncontrolled movement or behavior.2 A seizure is a visible symptom of epilepsy. It is a sign that the brain is not working as it should.3

LGS has many possible causes. It can be caused by problems with brain formation or by brain injury. In 30% to 35% of cases, no cause can be found.4

LGS is a syndrome

LGS, as the name says, is a syndrome. A syndrome, in medical terms, is defined as a group of symptoms or features. Seizures are one of the features of LGS.3 BANZEL (rufinamide) is a prescription medicine approved for adjunctive treatment of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome (LGS) in pediatric patients 1 year of age and older, and in adults.

Features of LGS

LGS has many features and can be hard to diagnose. Doctors may not recognize LGS right away. Signs of LGS include5:

 
  • Having several seizure types; sometimes many seizures in a day

  • Slowed intellectual ability or developmental delay

  • A distinct brain wave pattern on an electroencephalogram (EEG)

    An EEG is a safe, painless test for diagnosing epilepsy symptoms. The EEG shows electrical activity in the brain. Small disks are attached to the scalp and connected by wires to the EEG machine that records brain activity. This can detect problems with brain function.

 
 

Challenges of treating LGS

Diagnosing LGS may be difficult because there are many features involved.6 These features usually last and may change through childhood into adulthood. Likewise, seizures associated with LGS, for example, are hard to control. And freedom from seizures and normal development are rare.4

Remember, BANZEL is an add-on or adjunctive treatment indicated to treat seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome (LGS) in pediatric patients 1 year of age and older, and in adults.

You should know the different types of seizures associated with LGS and try to keep track of those you witness. Note when seizures happen, and how often. A seizure diary may help your doctor decide on the treatment plan that is best for your loved one.7

There are LGS treatment options that may help. Most people who have LGS are given multiple drugs to treat and control seizures.5

These treatments are known as antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Different AEDs have different side effects. It’s important to work with your doctor to find seizure control with the least amount of side effects. People who improve at first from taking one AED may resist its effects over time.4

NOTE: When finding the right AED, be sure to let your doctor know all the drugs (including vitamins) the person with LGS is taking.

Caring for someone with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome

As a parent or caregiver of someone diagnosed with LGS, you need information. So it’s important to prepare yourself to ask your doctor the right questions that will help you get the most out of your visits. Think of the doctor as your partner, and ask about the best treatment options.

References:

  1. 1. Crumrine PK. Lennox-Gastaut syndrome J Clin Neurol. 2002;17(suppl 1):S70-75.
  2. 2. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Epilepsy. MedlinePlus Web site. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/epilepsy.html. Updated June 3, 2014. Accessed June 11, 2014.
  3. 3. Benbadis SR. Epileptic seizures and syndromes. Neurol Clin. 2001;19(2):251-270.
  4. 4. NINDS Lennox-Gastaut syndrome information page. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Web site. http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/
    lennoxgastautsyndrome/lennoxgastautsyndrome.htm. Updated June 15, 2010. Accessed May 1, 2013.
  5. 5. Arzimanoglou A, French J, Blume WT, et al. Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: a consensus approach on diagnosis, assessment, management, and trial methodology. Lancet Neurol. 2009;8:82-93.
  6. 6. Dulac O, N’Guyen T. The Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Epilepsia. 1993;34(suppl 7):S7-S17.
  7. 7. Phillips L. Dear seizure diary: how and why to record your epileptic seizures. Neurology Now. 2009;5(6):35-36.
 
 
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    An FDA-approved add-on medication for seizures associated with LGS in children as young as 1 year of age

    An FDA-approved add-on medication for seizures associated with LGS in children as young as 1 year of age

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  • Seizure Diary

    Seizure Diary

    Track seizures to help your doctor evaluate or adjust treatment.

    Seizure Diary

    Track seizures to help your doctor
    evaluate or adjust treatment.

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